Karl Marx Capitalul Critica Economiei Politice Cartea i Vol i Procesul de Productie a Capitalului - [PDF Document] (2022)

  • Home
  • Documents
  • Karl Marx Capitalul Critica Economiei Politice Cartea i Vol i Procesul de Productie a Capitalului

prev

next

(Video) Class 01 Reading Marx's Capital Vol I with David Harvey

out of 50

Report

  • Download
FacebookTwitterE-MailLinkedInPinterest

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • 8/12/2019 Karl Marx Capitalul Critica Economiei Politice Cartea i Vol i Procesul de Productie a Capitalului

    1/50

    49

    Sectiunea lathMARFA $1 BANIICapitolul unuMarfa

    1. Cei doi factori ai Valoare de intrebuinfarevaloare (substanta valorii, mdrimea valorif)Avutia societdtilor in care domneste modul de productie capi-talist apare ca o uriasd ingramddire de mdrfuri" 1), iar fiecaremarfd in parte ca formd elementard a acestei avutii. Studiulnostru incepe, de eceea, cu analiza mrfii.Marfa este, in primul rind, un obiect exterior, un lucru careprin propriettile sale satisface anumite trebuinte ale omului. Na-tura acestor trebuinte, faptul ca provin, de exemplu, din stomacsau din fantezie, nu are importantd 2). Nu se pune aici in discutienici in ce fel un lucru satisface o trebuin ta. a omului, in chipdirect, ca mijloc de subzistentd, deci ca obiect de consum, sauin chip indirect, ca mijloc de productie.Orice lucru util, ca fierul, hirtia etc., trebuie considerat subun dublu aspect : sub aspectul calitatii i sub cel al cantittii.Orice lucru de acest fel reprezintd o multiplicitate de proprietatisi poate deci sd fie util prin diferite laturi ale lui. Descoperireaacestor laturi diferite si, prin urmare, a variatelor moduri de

    intrebuintare a lucrurilor este opera dezvoltdrii istorice 3). Acesta1) Karl Marx, Zur Kritik der Politischen Oekonomie", Berlin 1859, p. 3.(Vezi K. Marx i F. Engels. Opere, vol. 13, Bucuresti, Editura politied, 1962,p. 15. Nota trad.)Dorinta implied trebuinta ; ea este apetitul spiritului, tot atit denatural ca si foamed pentru corp... cea mai mare parte (a lucrurilor) au valoarepentru ea. satisfac trebuintele spiritului". (Nicholas Barboh, ,,A Discourse oncoining the new money lighter. In answer to Mr. Locke's Considerations etc.",London 1696, p. 2, 3.)3) Lucrurile au o intrinsick vertue" (acesta este la Barbon termepnul spe-cific pentru valoarea de intrebuintare), care este pretutindeni aceeasi, dupfi cummagnetul are insusirea de a atrage fierul" (1. c., p. 6). Proprietatea magnetuluide a atrage fierul a devenit util abia in ziva in care s-a descoperit, anajutorul ei, polaritatea magnetied.

    4

    mdrfii :$.1

    4)

    !!!"#$%&'&($)*%$"'&

  • 8/12/2019 Karl Marx Capitalul Critica Economiei Politice Cartea i Vol i Procesul de Productie a Capitalului

    2/50

    50 Sectiunea I. Marfa si baniieste cazul si cu descoperirea mdsurilor sociale pentru cantitatealucrurilor utile. Diversitatea acestor mdsuri ale mdrfurilor izvo-rdste in parte din natura diferit a obiectelor ce urmeazd a fimdsurate, in parte din conventie.Utilitatea unui lucru este aceea care face din el o vaIoarede intrebuintare 4). Dar aceastd utilitate nu pluteste in aer. Con-ditionat de propriettile corpului-marfd, ea nu exista Med acesta.De aceea, insusi corpul-marfd, ca fierul, griul, diamantul etc., esteo valoare de intrebuintare, sau un bun. Acest oaracter al sdu nudepinde de faptul cd, pentru a-si insusi calittile lui utile, omultrebuie sd che1tuiascd mai multd sau mai pultind unch'. Cind seanalizeazd valorile de intrebuintare, se presupune intotdeauna odeterminare a lor cantitativd, ca : o duzind de ceasuri, un cot depinza, o tond de fier etc. Valorile de intrebuintare ale mdrfurilorconstituie obiectul unei discipline speciale : merceologia 5). Va-loarea de intrebuintare nu se realizeazd decit in procesul intre-buintaxii sau al consumului. Valorile de intrebuintare formeazdcontinutul material al avutiei, oricare ar fi forma sociald a acesteia.In orinduirea sociald pe care o analizdm, ele sint in acelasi timppurtdtorii materiali ai valorii de schimb.Valoarea de schimb apare inainte de toate ca raportul canti-tativ, ca proportia in care valori de intrebuintare de un fel seschimbd pe valori de intrebuintare de alt fel 6), raport care variazdnecontenit in functie de timp si de loc. Valoarea de schimb paresa fie din aceastd cauzd ceva intimpldtor si pur relativ, iar ovailoare de schimb intrinsecd, imanentd mdrfii (valeur intrinsegue),apare deci ca o contradictio in adjecto 7). S cercetdm problemamai indeaproape.

    4) Valoarea naturala a oricdrui lucru const a. proprietatea sa de a satis-face trebuintele sau de a usura viata omului". (John Locke, Some Considerationson the Consequences of the Lowering of Interest", 1691, in Works", edit. Lon-don 1777, v. II, p. 28.) La autorii englezi din secolul al XVII-lea mai intlinimadesea termenul worth" pentru valoarea de intrebuintare i termenul value"pentru valoarea de schimb, ceea ce este intru totul in spiritul unei limbi ca'reiaii place sd exprime lucrurile nemijlocit date prin cuvinte de origine germanicAsi oele reflectate prin cuvinte de origine romanicd.5) In societatea burghezd dornneste fictio juris [fictiunea juridica] potrivitcareia orice om, in calitate de cumpardtor de mArfuri, posed cunostinte enciclo-pedice in domeniul merceologiei.6) Valoarea consta. in raportul de schirnb care exist& intre un lucru si unalt luau, intre o cantitate dintr-un produs si o cantitate din alt produs". (LeTrosne, De l'Intrt Social", [in] Physiocrates", ed. Daire, Paris 1846, p. 889.)7) Nimic nu poate avea o valoare de schimb intrinsecA" (N. Barbon, 1. c.,p. 6), sau, cum spune Butler :Valoarea unui lucru este egala' cu venitul pe care el 11 va educe" 24.

    iin

    (Video) Preface to the Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy | Karl Marx (Audio Reading)

    !!!"#$%&'&($)*%$"'&

  • 8/12/2019 Karl Marx Capitalul Critica Economiei Politice Cartea i Vol i Procesul de Productie a Capitalului

    3/50

    Capitolul 1. Marfa 610 marfa oarecare, un cuarter de griu de pilda, se schimbape cantitatea x de crema de ghete, sau pe cantitatea y de matase,sau pe cantitatea z de aur etc., intr-un cuvint, pe elle marfuri inproportiile cele mai diferite. Griul are, prin urmare, valori deschimb multiple, in loc sa aiba una singura. Dar cum cantitatea xde crema de ghete, ca si cantitatea y de matase sau cantitatea zde aur etc. reprezinta valoarea de schimb a unui cuarter de griu,cantitatile x de crema de ghete, y de matase, z de aur etc. trebuiesa fie valori de schimb care pot fi inlocuite una prin alta saucare sint egale una cu alta. De aici urmeaza, in primul rind, cadiferitele valori de schimb ale uneia si aceleiasi marfi exprimaacelasi lucru i, in al doilea rind, ca valoarea de schimb nu poate

    fi decit modul de exprimare, forma de manifestare" a unui con-tinut deosebit de ea.sa luam acum doua marfuri, de pilda griu i fier. Oricare arfi raportul lor de schimb, el poate fi reprezentat intotdeaunaprintr-o ecuatie, in care o cantitate de griu data e considerata cahind egiala cu o cantitate oarecare de fier ; de pilda : 1 cuarter degriu = a zentneri* de fier. Ce ne spune aceasta ecuatie ? Ea nespune ca cloud obiecte diferite intr-un cuarter de griu pi In azenitneri de tier exist& un element comun de aceeasi marime.Amindoua slut, asaclar, egale cu un al treilea, cape In sine nu estenici al doilea. Fiecare din aceste cloud obiecte, inmasura In care constituie o valoare de schimb, trebuie deci spoata fi redus la acest al treilea element.Un exemplu simplu luat din geometrie ne va ilustra acestfapt. Pentru a determina si a compara suprafetele tuturor figu-rilor rectilinii, descompunem aceste figuri in triunghiuri. Triun-ghiul insusi este redus la o expresie cu totul deosebita de aspectulsau vizibil jumatatea produsului dintre baza si inaltime. Totastfel valorile de schimb ale marfurilor trebuie sa fie reduse laun element comun, din care ele reprezinta o cantitate mai maresau mai mica.Acest element comun nu poate fi o proprietate geometriafizica, chimica sau o alta proprietate natural& a marfurilor. Pro-prietatile lor corporale sint luate in consideratie numai in masurain care ele fac ca marfurile sa fie utile, adica sa fie valori deintrebuintare. Pe de alt.& parte insa, ceea ce evident caracteri-zeaza raportul de schimb al marfurilor este tocmai faptul ca seface abstractie de valorile lor de intrebuintare. In cadrul acestuiraport de schimfb, o valoare de intrebuirrtare pretuieste exact atit

    * 1 zentner german = circa 50 kg. Nola trad.4*

    niici primul,

    In

    !!!"#$%&'&($)*%$"'&

  • 8/12/2019 Karl Marx Capitalul Critica Economiei Politice Cartea i Vol i Procesul de Productie a Capitalului

    4/50

    62 Sectiunea I. Marfa si baniicit orIcare alta, cu conditia Ica ea sa existe in proportia cuvenita.Sau, cum spune batrinul Barbon :

    Un fel de marfd este tot atit de bun ca oricare altul, cu conditia ca va-lorile lor de schimb s fie egale. Nu existd nici o diferenta sau distinctie intrelucruri cu valoare de schimb egale 8).Ca valori de intrebuintare, marfurile sint in primul rind decalitate diferita ; ca valori de schimb, ele nu pot avea decitdeosebiri cantitative si nu contin deci nici un atom de valoarede intrebuintare.Daca facem abstractie de valoarea de intrebuintare a marfu-rilor, ecestora nu le mai 'Amine decit o singurd insusire : aceeade a fi produse ale muncii. Dar acum i produsul muncii capatdcu totul alt aspect. Daca facem abstractie de valoarea sa de intre-buintare, facem totodata abstrectie de elementele si formele cor-parale care fac din el o valoare 'de intrebuintare. El nu mai esteo masa, o casa, un fir de tort sau alt obiect util. Toate proprietatilesale care pot fi percepute prin simturi ,au disparut. De asemenea,el nu mai este nici produsul muncii timplarului, zidarului, filato-rului sau al oricarei alte munci productive determinate. 0 datacu caracterul util al produselor muncii dispare i caracterul utilal muncilor reprezentate prin eceste produse, dispar, prin urmare,diferitele forme concrete ale acestor munci ; ele nu se maideosebesc intre ele, ci sint reduse, toate, la una si aceeasi muncaomeneasca, la munca omeneasca abstracta.Sal analizam acum reziduul produselor muncii. Din ele nu amai lamas decit una i aceeasi obiectualitate fantomatica, simplamasa amorfa de munca omeneascd nediferentiata, a dica decheltuire de f

(Video) Karl Marx’s Ecosocialism Capital, Nature, and Unfinished Critique of Political Economy Kohei Saito
MARX ‍I SATAN Wurmbrand
mesterul manole- critica
Ion Recepatre Critica
Critica Modernitatii (Nietzsche)
Istoria critica a literaturii romane - Nicolae Manolescu critica a... Istoria critica a literaturii
cdn4. despre romani... Karl Marx 4, l£¢na cu 40 etc. T£¤ranul, in 1812, trebuia s£¤ livreze Porgii la
Karl May - Dervisul
Karl Marx şi Friedrich Engels
analiza critica Hodoni
Marx si Satan - RICHARD WURMBRAND MARX ¥â€I SATAN Traduc¤’tor Traian C¤’lin Uba Editura Stephanus Bucure¥ti
Marx Engels Manifestul Partidului Comunist
A FOST KARL MARX UN ADEPT SATANIST? ... biserica a fost إںi أ®ncؤƒ mai este أ®ntr-o mare mؤƒsurؤƒ de
05 Marx - Critica Programului de La Gotha
Toamna - Karl Ove Knausgard - - Karl Ove Knausgard¢ Title: Toamna - Karl Ove Knausgard Author: Karl
Karl Marx.pptx
188-Marx si Satan.pdf
GANDIREA CRITICA
Inexorabilul sistem al lui Karl Marx ,;0 · PDF filepriveascll acea stea cum înaintează ... verbelor în limba ... după douăzeci de ani de vorbit engleza. p tra încl oribilul
02. Epoca Marilor Profeti- Hegel Si Marx
M. Eminescu £®n critica actual¤’ - in critica literara... M. Eminescu £®n critica actual¤’ 3 S££luc

FAQs

What are the main points of Das Kapital? ›

Ultimately, according to Das Kapital, the “capitalist class becomes unfit to rule, because it is incompetent to assure an existence to its slave within his slavery.” Consequently, the capitalist system collapses, and the working class inherits economic and political power.

How many volumes does Marx capital have? ›

For the first time ever all three volumes of Karl Marx's foundational work on economics, Capital, has been compressed into a single volume, and for a price your pocket will love.

What is Karl Marx known for? ›

Karl Marx is best known for his theories that led to the development of Marxism. His ideas also served as the basis for communism. His books, Das Kapital and The Communist Manifesto formed the basis of Marxism.

Who is Karl Marx and what did he do? ›

Who was Karl Marx? Karl Marx was a German philosopher during the 19th century. He worked primarily in the realm of political philosophy and was a famous advocate for communism. He cowrote The Communist Manifesto and was the author of Das Kapital, which together formed the basis of Marxism.

Who is the first socialist in the world? ›

The first modern socialists were early 19th-century Western European social critics. In this period socialism emerged from a diverse array of doctrines and social experiments associated primarily with British and French thinkers—especially Charles Fourier, Saint-Simon, Robert Owen.

What is the theme of the book Das Kapital? ›

Written in the middle of the 19th Century by German philosopher and economist Karl Marx, Das Kapital is essentially a description of how the capitalist system works and how, Marx claims, it will destroy itself.

What is Marxism theory? ›

Marxism is a social, political, and economic theory originated by Karl Marx that focuses on the struggle between capitalists and the working class. Marx wrote that the power relationships between capitalists and workers were inherently exploitative and would inevitably create class conflict.

What did Karl Marx say about capital? ›

Karl Marx saw capitalism as a progressive historical stage that would eventually stagnate due to internal contradictions and be followed by socialism. Marxists define capital as “a social, economic relation” between people (rather than between people and things). In this sense they seek to abolish capital.

How do you cite Marx Capital volume 1? ›

How to cite “Das Kapital” by Karl Marx
  1. APA. Marx, K. (1996). Das Kapital (F. Engels, Ed.). Regnery Publishing.
  2. Chicago. Marx, Karl. 1996. Das Kapital. Edited by Friedrich Engels. Washington, D.C., DC: Regnery Publishing.
  3. MLA. Marx, Karl. Das Kapital. Edited by Friedrich Engels, Regnery Publishing, 1996.

What are the 5 stages of society according to Marx? ›

The main modes of production that Marx identified generally include primitive communism, slave society, feudalism, mercantilism, and capitalism. In each of these social stages, people interacted with nature and production in different ways.

Who is the father of socialism? ›

Karl Marx revolutionized and popularized the ideas of Socialism. Therefore, he is called as the father of modern socialism.

Who is the father of communism? ›

Most modern forms of communism are grounded at least nominally in Marxism, a theory and method conceived by Karl Marx during the 19th century.

What is the importance of Marxism in the society? ›

It laid down the theory of class struggle and revolution. Marxism deals with the theory and practice of socialism. It propagates the establishment of a classless society. The means of production, distribution and exchange should be owned by the community as a whole as against private ownership.

What are the basic beliefs of Marxism? ›

Marxists believe that economic and social conditions, and especially the class relations that derive from them affect every aspect of an individual's life, from religious beliefs to legal systems to cultural frameworks.

What was Karl Marx theory of socialism? ›

Socialism, for Marx, is a society which permits the actualization of man's essence, by overcoming his alienation. It is nothing less than creating the conditions for the truly free, rational, active and independent man; it is the fulfillment of the prophetic aim: the destruction of the idols.

What are the main points of the Communist Manifesto? ›

The main argument in the Communist Manifesto is that creating one class of people would end the problem of continuous class struggles and cycles of revolution between the bourgeois and proletariat classes, which never lead to true reform.

What is Communist Manifesto summary? ›

The Communist Manifesto, written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, was first published in 1848. It formed the basis for the modern communist movement as we know it, arguing that capitalism would inevitably self-destruct, to be replaced by socialism and ultimately communism.

What did Karl Marx say about capital? ›

Karl Marx saw capitalism as a progressive historical stage that would eventually stagnate due to internal contradictions and be followed by socialism. Marxists define capital as “a social, economic relation” between people (rather than between people and things). In this sense they seek to abolish capital.

What is capital according to Marx? ›

Capital: Buying in order to sell at a higher profit. Capital transforms the simple circulation of commodities. In commodity exchange, one exchanges a commodity for money, which one then exchanges for some other commodity.

Top Articles

Latest Posts

Article information

Author: Nicola Considine CPA

Last Updated: 11/28/2022

Views: 6161

Rating: 4.9 / 5 (49 voted)

Reviews: 80% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Nicola Considine CPA

Birthday: 1993-02-26

Address: 3809 Clinton Inlet, East Aleisha, UT 46318-2392

Phone: +2681424145499

Job: Government Technician

Hobby: Calligraphy, Lego building, Worldbuilding, Shooting, Bird watching, Shopping, Cooking

Introduction: My name is Nicola Considine CPA, I am a determined, witty, powerful, brainy, open, smiling, proud person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.